Borobudur Temple


Borobudur temple is built of many layers of Buddhist theory.From a birds eye view,the Temple is in the shape of a traditional Buddhist mandala.A mandala is central to great deal of Buddhist and Hindu art. Basic from Hindu and Buddhist is  square four entry points. Circular centre point.working feom the exterior and interior three zone of consciousness are represented.

Acording to this Buddhist cosmology, universe is divided in to three major zones.

# The firt section call ” Kamadhatu” wich describes the human lives wich have able to control desires which is described by the fondation section.

# The second section called “Rupadhatu” which describes human lives which have able to control desires yet still bound by forms

# The third section called ” Arupadhatu” which describes nirwana and sunyata world, describes by 3 terraces in form of circles.

Borobudur temple was Left to the ravages of nature in between the 12th to 14th Century when the power of Java shifted to east of the island.The reason for this shift is unknown,but is often speculated that there was a volcanic eruption and people moved away from it.

In 1815 Raffles commissioned  an initial clean up ,where 200 labourer spent 45 days felling trees and moving earth from the remains. Many areas of the beautiful Temple were sagging.

In 1907 a large scale restore was carried out under Dutchman Van Erp that finished in 1911. Work was significant and definitely safeguarded Temple for some time. However, many pieces were not put back in the original position during the restoration.

In 1956 another assessment of the beautiful Temple was made by Belgian expert who was sent by UNESCO.His assessment concluded that water damage was significant ,and would need to be stemmed if the beautiful Temple was eroding,the fondation were being weakened and also the reliefs were being eroded.

 

Prambanan Temple

Prambanan was built around the ninth (9m) century and inaugurated by Rakai Pikatan as a King from ancient Mataram kingdom in 778 Caka (856 AD). This temple is dedicated to Shiva so that is called also as Shivagraha (a home for Shiva ) The temple consists of 3 yards arranged concentrically and centered. The first yard is considered as the most sacred part, located in the middle, there are 16 temples. 224 temples in the second yard and no temple in the third yard. The total numbers in the beginning were 240 temples.

The sixteen temples in the first yard divide to three main temples (Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu), three ‘wahana’ temples (believed as vehicle ofthe Gods), four ‘kelir’ temples (believed as calamity repellent), two ‘apit’ temples and four ‘patok’ temples . Shiva temple (47,6 m) is the biggest and the highest temple than two others temples Brahma Er Vishnu (33 m), it represents also Shiva’s position as the highest God in the Hindus’s belief.

As the biggest temple, Shiva has 4 chambers, they are the main chamber facing east is where the Shiva Mahadewa statue placed, at the north chamber placed Durga Mahisasuramardhini statue, at the west *‘riamber placed Ganesha statue and Agastya statue is in it: . nuth chamber. Whereas Brahma and Vishnu temples oni}: chamber with Brahma and Vishnu statue inside.

The temples in the first yard have rich ornaments. The best decoration is a lion flanked by Kalpataru with two creatures from nirvana, both in left and right called Kinara kinari. Kinara kinari is often replaced by priest or another animal. This kind of ornament only found in Prambanan temple, thus it is called Prambanan motif. On the balustrade of Shiva and Brahma temple, we can see Ramayana relief, while Vishnu temple is chiselled with Kresnayana relief.

In the second yard, there were 224 pieces of perwara temples, composed in 4 rows with around 14m height, but some temples are missing and only left 117 temples. Most of the perwara temples are still ruins and only 2 temples are restored successfully.